It is your own responsibility to adhere to these terms. In chapter six, Santas looks closely at the role of women in Plato's city and whether we should consider Plato a feminist. For information about the author, see:. What counts as 'proper' is open for debate. Social temperance obtains when the parts of the city agree about who should rule.
In pointing to the importance of education, though, Santas focuses not on the moral education prescribed in the Republic but rather on the vocational training that those in Plato's city will receive. Reeve, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill This is a splendid collection of essays. The Republic is undoubtedly one of Plato's masterworks and one of the most influential and widely read books in the history of philosophy. The city is able to rule itself well if it has wise rulers; it is able to guard itself well if it has courageous auxiliaries. It is here, after all, where we see Socrates's primary discussion of injustice, both in the city and the soul.
This leaves many unanswered questions about, e. These two virtues together enable the city to perform all of its functions better. We are offered a vivid account of human psychology, about the motivations and outside forces that result in the degeneration of cities and souls, and we see the effects of that degeneration. Understanding Plato's Republic provides readers with an accessible introduction to the concepts of justice that inform Plato's masterwork, carefully explicating his main argument that we would be better off leading just lives rather than unjust ones. Methods of Reasoning About Justice in Plato's Republic: Gerasimos Santas University of California, Irvine. Register a Free 1 month Trial Account.
The proper moral education is, we learn, necessary for virtue. The Challenge of Thrasymachus 15 1 Why does Thrasymachus Think that Justice is the Interest of the Rulers? The contributors are not content with rehashing old material but demonstrate how it is still possible to engage with the Republic in new and philosophically stimulating ways. Two virtues -- wisdom and courage -- follow directly from the functions of ruling and defending oneself. Indeed it is this last thing -- Santas's critical engagement with the text and emphasis on getting the reader involved in its debates and arguments -- that is the real strength of this book. Given that the city is complex, we should expect it to have more than one function and, indeed, Santas identifies three, corresponding to the three parts of the city: to provision itself, to protect itself, and to rule itself. Informed by over 50 years of teaching experience, Santas' lively and engaging writing style makes The Republic accessible to all while remaining faithful to dialogue's philosophical complexity.
The book examines the basic ideas Plato uses to build up his theory of justice: his theories of forms, function and virtue; his psychology; his analogy between just society and a just person; and the knowledge of good that Plato deemed necessary for governing well. These would be unanswered questions, that is, were it not for Socrates's lengthy discussion of moral education that precedes his discussion of the virtues. Someone who reads it will come away with an appreciation for the continued relevance and value of the arguments in the Republic, and that is, in my mind, something very good indeed. With the exception of the first example: it isn't until books six and seven when we learn what sort of knowledge one must have in order to be wise. Michelle Jenkins, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, August 27 2011. But this knowledge, we learn in books six and seven, requires knowledge of the good which is gotten via dialectic.
When considering whether personal justice should actually be considered justice, Santas sides with David Sachs , arguing that the state that Socrates describes lacks a sufficiently adequate connection to conventional justice and so should be considered something more like psychological health rather than justice. Plato and the Ship of State: David Keyt University of Washington. . Every thing that has a function has an associated virtue. Notably, we do not get any particular virtue that is directed specifically at the function of provisioning the city. The Blackwell Guide to Plato's Republic consists of thirteen new essays written by both established scholars and younger researchers with the specific aim of helping readers to understand Plato's masterwork.
According to the functional theory, the virtue and goodness of an object is found by looking to its function and then trying to isolate the qualities that enable it to perform that function well. Thus, even if this is a beneficial state, Socrates has not shown us that we should prefer justice to injustice. In this final chapter he inquires into both social and personal justice, asking three questions of each: 1 is this actually an account of justice? Preface xi 1 Introduction: The Style, Main Argument, and Basic Ideas of the Republic 1 1 The Dialogue Style and the Characters 2 2 The Main Argument and Plot of the Republic 5 3 The Fundamental Ideas of the Republic 8 2 Is Justice the Interest of the Rulers? The result is a book that gives its readers some grounding in the basic threads of argument in the Republic while also encouraging and empowering them to engage the text and see the arguments as making philosophical claims that are still relevant and worthy of our consideration today. But the importance of books eight and nine go far beyond helping us better understand Plato's views of the good city and good soul. The Divided Soul and Desire for the Good in Plato's Republic: Mariana Anagnostopoulos California State University. Three of the most prominent digressions are given their own chapters.
Following the structure of the Republic, he first looks at the virtues of the city and then turns to the virtues of the soul. Plato s own Social Ideal 55 1 What is Justice? Plato's Defense of Justice: Rachel G. Personal justice obtains when each of the natural parts of the soul performs its own psychic function. The Analysis of the Soul in Plato's Republic: Hendrik Lorenz Princeton University. The essays shed new light on many central features and themes of the Republic including: Plato's literary and philosophical style; his use of myths, metaphors, and allegories; his theories of justice and knowledge; and his treatment of psychology, education, myth, and the divine. In his book, Gerasimos Santas aims to help the reader better understand the Republic by focusing on its central argument -- that we are better off just than unjust. The other two virtues -- temperance and justice -- are holistic and enable the soul to perform all of its functions well.
The links are provided solely by this site's users. We should be grateful to Gerasimos Santas, and to each of the contributors to this volume, for the new light they have shed on Plato's masterpiece. It is these digressions that are the real strength of this book. The second and perhaps biggest omission that I see in the book is any systematic discussion of the degenerate cities and souls in books eight and nine. But Plato is almost completely silent on vocational education, focusing instead on the moral education of the guardians and auxiliary and the mathematical education required for knowledge of the good. Plato on Learning to Love Beauty: Gabriel Richardson Lear The University of Chicago.
The Challenge of Thrasymachus 15 1 Why does Thrasymachus Think that Justice is the Interest of the Rulers? Author name Role Type of author Work? Thus we learn how the parts of the soul can be shaped for good or for ill, and we see the lengthy process that is involved in putting the soul into its proper order. In his discussion of it, Socrates states that they must ensure that those who engage in dialectic have the appropriately ordered and stable soul because, without this, they will become misologists and moral skeptics 537dff. But instead of finding one virtue that applies to the function of provisioning, we get two holistic virtues: temperance and justice. Socrates Divides the Question 55 2 What is a Just Society? In chapter seven he considers some of Plato's metaphysical and epistemological commitments, offering an account of the Forms and looking more closely at the standards required for knowledge. The analysis is close, fresh, and revealing, and at the same time remarkably concise. The analysis is close, fresh, and revealing, and at the same time remarkably concise. Santas also introduces shorter digressions throughout all of the chapters, asking, amongst other questions, how we might expand Glaucon's account of justice given its brevity in the text, about the nature of the relationship between the city and soul, whether the parts of the soul should be considered agents or capacities, whether the Republic is elitist and if so, in what ways , how to understand the Form of the Good, and what would happen to the account of justice if we were to drop the metaphysical and epistemological commitments in the middle books.