Bonomi sides with Heimert, though perhaps more subtly. Historians since then have argued that men were distracted by commercial pursuits, but Bonomi takes issue with this. In this pathbreaking study, Patricia Bonomi argues that religion was as instrumental as either politics or the economy in shaping early American life and values. By turning colonial resistance into a righteous cause, and by crying the message to all ranks in all parts of the colonies, ministers did the work of secular radicalism and did it better; they resolved doubts, overcame inertia, fired the heart, and exalted the soul. Toleration was not an idealistic, but rather a practical, maneuver on the company's behalf. Blacks, Indians and Indentured Servants were all targets of church efforts at conversion to greater or lesser degrees. The class issue is perhaps less important, however, for the broader population than the gender one at this time.
In her broad 1986 survey of colonial religion Under the Cope of Heaven Patricia U. Religious materials were the biggest category of printed material. New Sides were younger men, educated in the colonies who were impatient with the formalities of their elders. The overall impact, at a macro level, was then to increase the already growing Christianization to borrow a phrase from Butler of the colonies. In her book, Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society and Politics in Colonial America, Patricia Bonomi writes a social history of the British colonies in North America through the American Revolution. Another frontier challenge was dealing with the impact of warfare with Indians. Some, like Henry Muhlenberg, stayed.
None of which evidenced any signs of declension. Baptists agitated for religious toleration and disestablishment in the 1760s, but didn't see the fruits of their labors until the coming of the Revolution, at which time they were able to trade allegiance to the patriot cause for support of religious liberty. After the Revolution began, clergy could invest the David and Goliath struggle with readily available religious imagery. Almost universally, sermons were preached and pamphlets were published that sniffed the sure smell of incipient tyranny whenever designs were detected upon either the civil or religious liberties the colonists claimed for themselves, and usually the one was the precursor of the other. The governor eventually won 1748. Religious Liberty on Principle only developed in Rhode Island under the leadership of Roger Williams, and amongst the Quakers of Pennsylvania and New Jersey.
Accusations against the reverend for marital infidelity lead to an all out dispute between him and the Presbytery in the mid 1730s. Recent works that have linked the two have come under criticism, but Bonomi proceeds along this course herself. As many as 200 separate congregations formed throughout New England during this period. The ideology of dissent was — and is — defined in large part by its anti-Catholicism. Bonomi skillfully avoid such a presentist bias in arguing that colonists held religious and Enlightenment ideals simultaneously and generally without tension. Quakers turned themselves into martyrs by refusing to submit to Puritan dictates.
Hatch The Sacred Cause of Liberty, 1977. In the preface to the 1986 edition of Under the Cope of Heaven, Patricia Bonomi discusses a conversation she had with Richard Hofstadter. Though he received a light sentence, his name and memory are invoked repeatedly by Thomas Gordon and John Trenchard in The Independent Whig. This lack of deference to authority carried over to the controversy over the possible appointment of an Anglican Bishop for the colonies and the American Revolution. It was, for instance, made illegal to officiate at ceremonies like weddings unless you were an ordained minister and ordination was denied to New Lights who ended up in prison for officiating at weddings.
Taking an organizational approach, she used as evidence figures on In her broad 1986 survey of colonial religion Under the Cope of Heaven Patricia U. To what extent was religion in decline in the colonies starting in the late 17thC? Some, like Henry Muhlenberg, stayed. In the colonial assembly, the Quaker east was disproportionately represented over the Presbyterian west. This is an abbreviated version of my review. It may be difficult modern historians to reconcile Enlightenment rationalism with religious piety, especially the evangelicalism of the Great Awakening. What of the various groups outside of the middling sorts and the well to do? Chapter 7: Religion and the American Revolution The Ideology of Dissent grew form multiple sources, one of which Bonomi argues was evangelical religion.
The reviews of this book all point to Bonomi's position on several fundamental questions. At the very least, there is an expanded preface that discusses historiographical advances since the first publication. The outsiders in religion began to see themselves as outsiders in politics, and they were as ready to challenge the political establishment as they were to confront the religious one. Review by Choice Review Bonomi's volume is richer in conception and intention than in execution. The book focuses on 18th-century religious activity, when churches stabilized and extended their influence to all parts of the colonies, and examines the everyday life of the clergy, the tension between religious competition and religious toleration, and the attitudes and practices of churchgoers from every rank and region. Religious discourse was a universal discours I really liked this one. Bonomi sides with Heimert, though perhaps more subtly.
Their writings on spiritual matters were even taken seriously enough to be included in sermons delivered by men. As Hofstadter pointed out, religious loyalties shaped political debate -- yet the paradox existed that most historians agreed that church attendance was heading downward from the early 18th C to the Revolution. Instead of a Bishop, London sent a Commissary, Rev. Written with grace and style, Under the Cope of Heaven presents a stimulating new perspective on the formative era of American religious culture. Nor was the social upheaval wrought to those parts of New England, New York and New Jersey most affect by the Great Awakening. She frequently fails to introduce influential people important enough for her study, but not commonly known.