For instance, the verb kill is compatible with subject arguments which are not volitional in the sense of controlling the outcome of the situation, a feature not shared by the verbs murder and execute. The semantics of time and modality -- 1. Original data is used frequently throughout the book to illustrate the theory discussed. Some readers might object that the evaluation time parameter appears to be a theoretical tool created ad hoc to account for a marginal reading of the English Past Perfect. In the first of these passages it is most likely locative: yah. Within United Kingdom About this Item: Universitetsforlaget I Aarhus, 1951. Delbrück 1897: 74—82, Hoffmann 1967: 271—272, 1970: 30—32.
Dowty 1979: 88—90, Hay et al. Before entering a discussion of more specific, technical issues, it may be useful to discuss briefly how these two semantic dimensions interact in the linguistic construction of meaning. With these modifications, we arrive at a slightly less complex picture, with five Present stem types, four Aorist stem types and one Perfect stem type. Following this, we shall present an overall typology of Rigvedic conjunction in which we attempt to characterize as precisely as possible the discourse roles of all the major Rigvedic conjunctive particles as well as their interrelations. Nevertheless, the idea of determining the semantic properties of the Early Vedic Aorist by comparing its functional range with that of its semantically much less disputed Greek counterpart is intuitively appealing, as this would seem to provide a somewhat firmer basis for exploring its meaning as opposed to a purely inductively oriented approach. Aspekt und Tempus im Frühvedischen und Indogermanischen. It adds a full treatment of Vedic Syntax and an account of the Vedic meters.
Sue arrived the day before Nerbonne 1986: 88 b. This is, among other things, reflected in the assumption that certain lexical entailments have systematic impact on the construction of aspectual meaning across languages. . It is simply that the aorist, being specifically restricted to the R-reading, blocks the perfect from being assigned that reading. This approach is not implausible, as it would represent the reference time parameter as a temporal variable which may be bound or free according to context. Delbrück 1876: 88 This statement gives a partial answer to the question about the remoteness notions involved in the Early Vedic past tense system. Delbrück 1876: 90 Somit kann also als festgestellt angesehen werden, dass der Aorist in der überwiegenden Mehrzahl der Fälle das eben Geschehene bezeichnet.
In this respect, this semantic role differs from other roles like Agent, Patient, Recipient or Benefactive which show a more restricted range of case-marking options. Preliminary results of this project have been presented at workshops, conferences and guest lectures in Berkeley, Jena, Göteborg, Edinburgh, Oslo, Leiden, Stanford, Los Angeles, Austin, Yale, Marburg, Pisa, Napoli, Salzburg, Bergen, Freiburg, Köln and Kyoto. It was noted in Chapter One that a sequential interpretation typically arises when two or more situations are represented as being terminated within the same reference time interval, i. It is well known that a considerable part of the lexicon of any given language is culture-dependent, even though all languages may be assumed to have verbs for some basic human experiences, like being born or dying. Depraetere 1995, Bertinetto 2000: 21ff.
Es liegt zwischen der Gegenwart und der durch den Aorist bezeichneten Handlung nur ein kurzer Zwischenraum. The present work explores the interaction between tense, aspect and, to a somewhat less pervasive extent, modality in the language of the Rigveda. As speech time 4 Cf. Polymorphic thematic root presents in Vedic and the origin of the thematic conjugation. It is shown that the Archaic Vedic present indicative, aorist indicative and aorist injunctive are quite compatible with these constraints, that the basic modal specifications of present and aorist subjunctive and optative violate the modal constraint on performative sentences, but give rise to speaker-oriented readings which in turn are compatible with that constraint. It was noted in section 1. Zwei Wege zur Ergativität: Grammatischer Wechsel im Indoarischen und Anatolischen.
The notion of specific or definite quantity has proven useful to capture the difference between predicates like build three houses and build houses which differ with regard to whether the internal argument is specifically quantified or not. It is therefore tempting to generalize this suggestion and hypothesize that grammatically relevant lexical entailments have the form of privative semantic features in the sense just discussed. Since both of these latter passages show objects later in the verse, it would be best to take im in these as well as an object, proleptically employed. The data in Table 2. It contains thirty hymns selected from the Rgveda primarily for students who while acquainted with classical sanskrit are beginners of vedic lacking the aid of a teacher with adequate knowledge of the earliest period of the language and literature of India.
The Nansen Foundation, The Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture, The Faculty of Humanities, University of Oslo, The Norwegian Research Council, The Ryoichi Sasakawa Young Leaders Fellowship Fund, The German Research Council and The Italian Department of Foreign Affairs provided me with generous financial support which enabled me to spend a considerable time abroad and to attend numerous conferences. Today he would order around-the-clock staffing to get the genetic center on line, damn the cost Internet 31 b. This semantic difference may be invoked to explain the fact that regular achievement verbs like win are perfectly acceptable in the Progressive, whereas punctual or instantaneous achievement verbs like explode are unusual in the Progressive. Although numerous studies have examined the functional range of individual verbal categories in this language, this work is the first attempt to approach this problem from an overall, systemic perspective. From this perspective it is noteworthy that the Perfect Injunctive is much less frequently employed in prohibi- introduction 25 tive clauses in Early Vedic than the Present and Aorist Injunctive cf. Delbrück 1876: 88 6 introduction Dass das Imperfectum einen von dem Aorist durchaus verschiedenen Sinn hat, ist schon aus den bisher behandelten Stellen zu ersehen. Aspects of the morphosyntax of subjecthood in Latin.
Man hüte sich jedenfalls, den Gebrauch des iranischen und des griechischen Aorists bei der Feststellung der Grundbedeutung des Aorists ausser Augen zu lassen Delbrück 1876: 88 However, a methodological approach along these lines involves some rather obvious risks of fallacy. In contrast, intransitive verbs with an agent-like subject argument, as for instance undirected motion verbs like go or run, are conventionally labeled unergative. With these slight modifications, the Reichenbachian framework is not only equipped to handle a great variety of temporal relations but may be used to accommodate various aspectual relations as well cf. This temporal parameter typically coincides with speech time, but may also be anchored in some other, contextually salient time. Hitches in Historical Linguistics 2012-02-23 - 2012-02-24 2012.
This definition of the semantic past may seem overly unspecified, as nothing prevents it from denoting the maximal time interval prior to speech time. Mytho-grammatisk workshop 2013-12-06 - 2013. In order to achieve this, we need a theoretical framework which allows for distinguishing notions like tense, aspect and temporal remoteness in unambiguous and at the same time intuitively reasonable terms. As will be argued in Chapter Five below, this semantic change is already perceptible in the later parts of the Rigveda. It therefore seems most prudent to take the morphological system of the Rigveda at face value, assuming that it reflects the synchronic linguistic reality in the Early Vedic period.