New York: Abbeville Press, 1992. Lower-level undergraduates and above; general readers. Victorian sexuality is hardly a new field, but Werbel uses Tom Eakins as an interesting case study of both attitudes and practices. This book sets Eakins in the context of Philadelphia's scientific, medical, and artistic communities in the nineteenth century, and considers his provocative behaviour in the light of other well-publicized scandals of his era. Although it is highly unlikely that Rush had worked from a nude model, Eakins imagined the celebrated artist doing so to justify his own artistic practices. Self-Portrait 1902 Eakins created this self-portrait near the end of his career to fulfill a requirement for associate membership of the National Academy. To her credit, however, she counters these important and influential arguments by contextualizing the artist's life and work in new and important ways.
Man Made: Thomas Eakins and the Construction of Gilded Age Manhood. The Thinker: Portrait of Louis N. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. He also lectured occasionally at the , the , and , always insisting upon the importance of the study of the nude. Eakins also carried out his own photographic studies of motion as part of his ongoing quest to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the human body.
Using a and glass plate negatives, he produced platinum prints of great tonal richness. Eakins notoriously emphasized the study of the nude during his tenure at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007. Since he rarely received commissions, most of his sitters were family, friends, and professionals he admired. He photographed men walking, running, jumping, and pole-vaulting in the nude.
More typically, he took elements from a variety of photographs and transformed them in the final work. New York: Praeger Publications, in association with the Whitney Museum of American Art, 1970. Eakins specifically created The Gross Clinic for the 1876 in Philadelphia. The first and best known of these is Max Schmitt in a Single Scull The Champion Single Sculls of 1871. While he did not use this image as a direct study for the painting, he referenced it while composing the large-scale work. I fell in love with art as a kid growing up in New York City, and followed my passion to major in art history at Harvard, and then complete a PhD at Yale. He painted relatives and friends, predominantly women, engaged in everyday activities in domestic interiors.
. Werbel uses other Philadelphia figures for comparison and offers many insights into the inception, creation, and reception of Eakins's paintings. In the 1880s, Eakins produced a series of photographs that engaged with an Arcadian theme. Nine days after this work arrived at the National Academy, Eakins was finally elected a full member. Across her stage come Benjamin Franklin; Sylvester Graham, who invented the Graham cracker as part of his efforts at sexual reform; Anthony Comstock, famed for his anti-obscenity laws; Lewis Carroll; the early photographer Eadweard Muybridge, whose murder of his wife's lover here becomes a contributing part of the Eakins' story; and even Oscar Wilde! Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. William Rush Carving His Allegorical Figure of the Schuylkill River Eakins created this painting during his first year of teaching at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where he notoriously emphasized the study of the nude. Eakins, also a proficient sculler, included himself vigorously rowing in the middle distance.
Seeking greater insight into the structure of the human form, he supplemented his art courses with anatomy lectures and dissections at later Thomas Jefferson University. As with his earlier rowing, hunting, and sailing scenes, the inspiration for these works arose from his enthusiasm for the sports. He insisted on the use of live models both human and animal in drawing and painting classes and added dissection courses to the curriculum. Photography In addition to oil painting, watercolor, and sculpture, Eakins experimented with photography in the 1880s and 1890s. Copyright 2016, Rutgers University Related Reading Berger, Martin A.
Relying upon his photographs as general references, he depicted a scene of nude young men on a rocky outcrop. The loose brushwork reveals the influence of his teacher, Léon Bonnat, who encouraged his students to emulate the painterly techniques of the Spanish Baroque masters. He also learned to sculpt from 1801-84 , creating small maquettes as aids to painting—a practice he continued throughout his career. Her book is as much about the cultural climate of Tom Eakins's city as it is about his life and work. Eakins was smart enough to intuit many of the cultural land mines in his hometown of Philadelphia, Werbel writes, but then subversive enough to find ways to step on each one.
Eakins then spent the winter of 1869-70 in Spain, where he became enraptured with the dark colors and bold, gestural brushstrokes of the seventeenth-century paintings of 1599-1660 and 1591-1652. Collection Rights: The Macbeth Gallery records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. If you wish to read only one book about Eakins, this would be a good choice. A writing master and teacher, Benjamin imparted to his son the precision of fine penmanship and calligraphy. Eakins employed his deft control of the pen in his drawing classes at , where he learned to create meticulous mechanical and perspective drawings.