Josephs and Steele point out that it seldom happens in the real world that people drink and do absolutely nothing else. By the age of 17 years, over half drink at least once a week, and while girls are almost as likely to drink as are boys, their alcohol consumption is lower. Consequently, the Dangerous Drugs Act was amended in 1967 to restrict heroin prescription to doctors working at special drug treatment centres that opened in 1968 Plant, 1987. For example, there are genetically determined differences in alcohol metabolism. Rats who had been given a series of morphine injections showed greater tolerance to the drug, as measured by sensitivity to pain, when they were tested under the same environmental conditions as those in which they had received the drug. Compare, for example, the likely strength of desire to drink of a young man in a city centre pub on Saturday night, with heavy drinking friends who are looking for fun, as opposed to the same young man in a country pub on a Sunday afternoon, with his parents having a drink before lunch. First, he asks what is meant by impaired control.
This is not to deny that it may sometimes be easier to abstain completely than to maintain moderation, but simply to point out the strange logic of the disease model. While some are able to control their drinking should they wish to do so as we have seen in Chapter 1 , the notion of control is irrelevant to many others; they have no wish to control their drinking and never attempt to exercise control. Finally, prevention approaches are discussed with reference to the public health model which encompasses issues relating to the agent, the host and the environment. Researchers have investigated a diverse range of phenomena, including inability to stop, inability to abstain, trying to stop or cut down but failing, getting drunk at inappropriate times or places, drinking alone and worrying about drinking. Given the prevalence rates of drinking and smoking, it is proper that concern should surround these activities. Kandel 1985 notes that gregarious adolescents can belong to a drug using group or a non-drug using group, and drug use depends upon membership of a group whose members use drugs.
Legislation to control various substances imposes a certain meaning upon drug use, creating drug-using subcultures with their own special identity. That is, morphine tolerance is more pronounced under the environmental conditions associated with drug administration compared to an alternative environment. The tension reduction expectancy may need to be balanced against other expectancies, in this case that alcohol leads to cognitive and physical impairment Young et al. Alcohol was consumed in enormous quantities, and opium could be found on sale at the corner shop and was widely used as an analgesic. Donovan and Chaney 1985 give an example of how conditioned opponent processes would work with a problem drinker. The first group was asked to sit quietly and do nothing; the second group was occupied by being asked to rate a series of art slides.
Finally, the process of chaining is required to explain complex human behaviour. Their drug use was financed mostly through legal means, and they limited their consumption because of the costliness of the drug. Procedures based upon extinction are used in the treatment of addictions, and are known as cue exposure with response prevention. We can see that in doing this moral views about drinking and drug use became enmeshed with the medical perspective. Rats that were tolerance tested following the same cue conditions that signalled the drug during the tolerance development phase were more sensitive to pain than either of the other two groups of rats. In addition, outcome expectancies may be modified in programmes to reduce alcohol and drug use. The desire for a cigarette played its part in this tale, but equally the relapse could be attributed to the argument with the wife, the social pressure of the old friend, or the consumption of alcohol.
Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning models derive from the work of B. Careers with Substance Use Addiction is not an inevitable consequence of substance use. The second point made by Orford is that while increased costs may make for increased restraint, the balance is not quite that simple. Alcohol-related expectancies measured at the start predicted drinking one year later; the more positive expectancies a young person holds, the more likely is he or she to become a drinker. That is, there exists the opportunity for a vicious circle to develop.
Problem behaviours are defined as those that depart from the social and legal norms of society and include drinking, drug use, smoking, precocious sexual activity and delinquency. Inebriety Those movements against alcohol and drug use that emerged during the first part of the nineteenth century were able to gain strength for their arguments by drawing upon medical opinion. These neutral stimuli in the environment are called discriminative stimuli. The primary reinforcer is the effect of nicotine upon the body. In general, for those who were still alive 14. In Britain, where alcohol is concerned, it is against the law to give intoxicating liquor to a child under 5 years old, except on medical orders. His Type 1 alcoholics are typified as passive— dependent individuals who develop alcoholism after the age of 25 years, are binge drinkers, and rarely get into trouble as a result of their drinking.
In particular, delinquency and belonging to delinquent peer groups are significant risk factors for substance use. Jellinek reserved judgment about whether there was an innate predisposing factor that could explain loss of control, or if this was acquired as a result of excessive drinking. However, alcohol is likely to decrease sexual performance, thus exacerbating the anxiety. Another vicious circle bares its teeth. His response, therefore, is to go to the pub for another drink.
Differences may also be found in the neural circuitry of the brain. For example, as we have seen, a common expectancy is that drinking alcohol at a party leads to high spirits; the same outcome expectancy may not hold for solitary drinking, where it is probably more common to expect alcohol to lead to a maudlin mood. Fear of addiction, overdosing, or experiencing other adverse consequences were reasons for discontinuing use. The Home Office began to record the number of heroin addicts in 1954 and the numbers of registered addicts steadily increased over the years until in 1958 the Ministry of Health convened an Interdepartmental Committee on Drug Addiction—the Brain Committee—to update the Rolleston Report Kohn, 1987. Much of the poverty and lawlessness amongst the working classes was blamed on excessive alcohol consumption. Heather suggests quite simply that loss of control may be defined as the likelihood of continued drinking after a given amount of alcohol. In writing this book, I learned a great deal about the topic of addiction.
After initial experimentation, what then motivates people to continue with addictive behaviours? The validity of selfreport has been questioned; that is, how can we be sure that respondents are telling the truth? Drinking and drug use are not typically solitary activities at least not in the early stages and there is no doubt about peer influence relating to substance use. When a person begins to use drugs, it is often the case that the physical experience is either minimal or unpleasant. That is, an individual can symbolize experience through thought and language, which allows the capability of forethought. Windle 1991 studied the relationship between difficult temperament and substance use in high school students. I have a book called The Macmillan Treasury of Relevant Quotations.