An explanatory analysis of the unequal distribution of the Internet backbone networks -- 7. The Scandinavian countries - Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland - have developed a particular model of welfare, employment and economic governance. The results of most of these studies are based on arguments about the impacts of these technologies on decentralization or centralization trends in urban spatial structure. The argument is that behind every successful world city there is an intensive hinterworld. Results indicate that cities with greater telecommunications capacity are more likely to have positive growth in high-tech industry and all sectors analyzed.
The Gauteng City-Region has made significant progress over the past two decades. Journal of Geographical Systems, 17, 157-185. The paper concludes that actors, dealing with regional spatial plans in a decentralized planning system, have to acquire an in-depth knowledge of the technology, economy and governance of current networks and the qualities of the substratum, which form a conditioning and stimulating framework for the spatial planning of urban and regional areas. Some implications of this activity for the future of cities are discussed. The present study aims to demonstrate the importance of digital data for investigating space-time dynamics of aggregated human activity in urban systems. Finally, a causality analysis demonstrates the significant positive effect of the Internet infrastructure in the economic development of regions characterized by high absorptive capacity.
This new approach is often also coined internet geography or cyber geography Batty 2012; Leamer and Storper 2001;Malecki 2002;Storper and Venables 2004; Tranos 2013. We find that some service activities those considered knowledge intensive have similar concentration levels to those operating in high or medium tech manufacturing. The author argues that, although these metaphors help to theorize the relativity of space - as the global impinges on the local - they only do so by obfuscating the relative space of everyday life and the increasingly technical means through which it is produced. It is argued that urban problems are best viewed as the symptoms of adjustment to changes in the functions and supply side conditions of particular cities, interacting with the adaptive capacity of their local economy and their social structure. The article uses principal components analysis and regression models to examine the influence of a range of socio-economic variables on the spatial distribution of the Internet backbones in Europe, and concludes that they largely follow existing patterns of development, urban concentrations of knowledge, nodes of transport provision and patterns of high accessibility. The former may locate in picturesque renovated areas, or even in rural areas.
You can help correct errors and omissions. Overlapping provision of service means no boundaries of influence thus problematising traditional concepts such as hinterland. Finally, a causality analysis demonstrates the significant positive effect of the Internet infrastructure in the economic development of regions characterized by high absorptive capacity. This article explores the linkage between telecommunications infrastructure and high-tech industry growth in cities of two metropolitan areas, Minneapolis-St. London and New York have the most intensive hinterworlds and it is found that overall London's hinterworld is slightly more intensive than New York's but the latter is more concentrated in other leading world cities. Book review: Complexity, Cognition and the City by J. Networkability is the quantitative measurement of the spatial interaction relationships in the international air network.
Over the past few years, a new 'geographical' economics has emerged, focused on the spatial agglomeration of industry and the long-run convergence of regional incomes. An Explanatory Analysis of the Unequal Distribution of the Internet Backbone Networks 7. The diffusion and easy access to geographic and computer equipment has revolutionized not only the models of communication, but also the techniques of production and diffusion of geographic information, combining more and more objective dimension of knowledge with that subjective and perceptive. Papers in Regional Science, 93, 409-428. Subsequently, with the study of the abstracts and the findings of the studies, at last, 80 articles related to the topic were selected for literature review. There is also an apparent disparity between population and city accessibility to the Internet. Environment and Planning A, 46, 2769-2785.
This article draws together specific results and facts relevant to a variety of networks cyber and air in the context of hubs and with a particular focus on their vulnerability and resilience. Simultaneously with increasing data access and popularity of the topic, there is a growing debate about the internet implications for broader geographic scope of activities, in particular the potential effects of centralization or its de- centralization in spatial structure Tranos, 2013. Although these empirical studies have great merits in making a closer connection to theoretical ideas on a genuine urban network, they sometimes fail to recognise that the whole idea of cities as 'nodes' in a transnational urban network is a heuristic at best. It focuses on highlighting the different roles different cities perform in this global network. This study shows that cities, as well as institutions of higher education in the cities, are driving, rather than simply participating in, information-based phenomena such as the expansion of the Internet.
Several key conceptual and methodological issues involved in the assessment of economic impacts are described. These more or less hierarchical relationships are supposed to produce clear ground rules for the spatial planner. Frameworks to explain new networks built upon, and added to, existing telecommunications networks include network economies and the opportunity-rich paths located between the large markets on the east and west coasts of the country and a capital-driven set of new and old network suppliers. Rome, Zurich, Singapore, Los Angeles, and other cities were identified as the class 2 cities in 1992, while Singapore, Tokyo, Madrid, Hong Kong, Bangkok, etc. Using such an extensive dataset from the city of Amsterdam, this paper introduces space-time explanatory models of aggregated human activity patterns.
Secondly, the installed Internet backbone capacity between any two cities refers to the weights of the network edges, which were initially analyzed in section 4. Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. In the increasingly competitive telecommunications industry, profit-seeking firms continue to upgrade infrastructure in select market areas creating an uneven spatial distribution of access opportunities. The Network Nature of the Internet Infrastructure 5. The Fundamentals of the Internet Infrastructure: A Cross-discipline Review 3. In order to do so, we used network analysis techniques and introduced four different centrality measures that we then summarized with the use of cluster analysis.
We trace the history of submarine cables and their geography from their early days to the Internet era, and analyze a global data set of cables at four intervals since 1979. They may enhance the intelligence that is needed for understanding and mapping out social connectivity phenomena in the sense of Jane Jacobs in modern smart cities. This capability now demands 'hard' networks that 'plug into' the Internet. Virtual reality technologies are not discussed explicitly as, in the main, they are still at an exploratory and experimental stage. It is argued that spatiality is central to understanding cyberspace. Dr Tranos' work also focuses on a side-product of the digital economy, all of these new sources of big, unstructured and, sometimes, unconventional data which can help us better understand cities and urban systems. The Layers Approach seems to offer a robust methodology for spatial planning.