Hirsch, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, and Robert E. Sometime after 1992, subsequent prevention programs allowed medical professionals, the political elite, and other powerful groups to impose their own culturally constructed judgments of risk on the general public. You may unsubscribe via the link found at the bottom of every email. Annual Review of Sex Research 9:1—19. The contents of this website are the sole responsibility of K4Health. The transformative approach of coding and decoding each context provides opportunities to challenge these scripts. Social Science and Medicine 48 3 :283—292.
Hirsch, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, and Robert E. In contrast, media representations more recently have shifted to portray these women as unlucky victims, ill-informed and disempowered. Parker also founded, and has since co-chaired, formally named the International Working Group on Sexuality Research until 2006. References cited Barbosa, Regina Maria, and Richard Parker 1999 Sexualidades Pelo Avesso: Direitos, Identidades e Poder. How can we promote more gender equitable attitudes among young men? These trends were complicated further by the culture of contraceptive use that developed in Brazil largely due to certain family planning programs geared toward women. Only 6 percent of the women reported multiple male partners, and 6 percent reported their own injection drug use as the source of infection.
See the for more details. Berkeley: University of California Press. Parker, Richard 1991 Bodies, Pleasures, and Passions: Sexual Culture in Contemporary Brazil. How is it possible to express a lack of trust within a marriage or stable relationship without destroying the very trust on which the relationship is supposed to be based? Reproductive Health Matters 3 5 :47—53. Brazil's considerable social and cultural diversity, however, have raised a series of obstacles to the development of effective educational programs. Other studies completed in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro confirm similar trends, again revealing the inadequacy of prevention programs that recommend decreasing the number of sexual partners and use of the condom Giffin and Lowndes 1999; Paiva et al. Parker was the founder and director of the Program in Gender, Sexuality and Health at the State University of Rio de Janeiro, which has been nationally and internationally recognized as the leading sexuality research and training program in Brazil.
Vera Paiva 2000 outlines a prevention program that engages with both young men and women that considers the social and cultural norms surrounding condom use, sexuality and gender. Want to get more out of the basic search box? Professor Emeritus of Sociomedical Sciences and Anthropology Special Lecturer and Special Research Scientist, Department of Sociomedical Sciences Member, Committee on Global Thought Richard Parker, Ph. American Journal of Public Health 95 7 :1162—1172. Giffin, Karen, and Catherine M. It is a fictional government. Annual Review of Anthropology 30:163—179. These stories aimed to horrify and shock their primarily female readers.
Richard Parker, Regina Maria Barbosa and Peter Aggleton, eds. Sexual and Relationship Therapy 15 3 :263—282. Berkeley: University of California Press. Thus, because all Brazilian women are expected to be more sensual than women of other cultures, male control of female sexuality is necessary. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3724, September 2005. Barker poses several vital questions for improving the health and well-being of women and men: How can some of the harmful aspects of certain traditional versions of masculinity be changed? Kulick, Don 1998 Travesti: Sex, Gender, and Culture among Brazilian Transgendered Prostitutes. The combination of this culturally inscribed definition and homophobia has created a situation where in reality, a considerable proportion of men are sexually active with both men and women yet define themselves publicly and to their female partners as exclusively heterosexual e.
These studies demonstrate that many women simply cannot diminish the number of their sexual partners because they are already monogamous, and, due to gender norms surrounding condom use, they cannot insist on condom use without risk of conflict, suspicion of unfaithfulness, or violence Paiva 1993. In Framing the Sexual Subject: The Politics of Gender, Sexuality, and Power. Barker, Gary 2000 Gender Equitable Boys in a Gender Inequitable World: Reflections from Qualitative Research and Programme Development in Rio de Janeiro. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Literacy programs that used popular language as codes proved a successful way to give access to reading and writing. By examining gender, sexuality, power and inequality in Brazil anthropologists have made important contributions to a growing body of literature that elucidates the complexities of sexual negotiations between men and women see Barbosa and Parker 1999; Dore 1997; Goldstein 2003; Gregg 2003; Parker 1991, 2001; Parker and Barbosa 1996; Parker and Gagnon 1995. Reproductive Health Matters 6 12 :31—40.
Lowndes 1999 Gender, Sexuality, and the Prevention of Sexually Transmissible Diseases: A Brazilian Study of Clinical Practice. Emails are serviced by Constant Contact. Biehl, João 2001 Vita: Life in a Zone of Social Abandonment. Advanced Searching Our tool lets you easily search multiple fields at the same time and combine terms in complex ways. Acknowledgment of such contextual factors did not enter the discourse until recent years. These issues are of particular salience to young men and women. Here, sexuality is defined in symbolic terms of sexual activity and passivity rather than on homosexual identity see Parker 1991 for more information on the cultural construction of male sexuality.
Of all the women who participated in the study, 37 percent of women reported male partners who were intravenous drug users, 21 percent reported male partners with multiple female partners, 6 percent reported male partners who were bisexual, and 2 percent reported male partners who had other partners sex unknown. The following section will elucidate the ways in which media and health interventions address these conceptions and powerfully influence their effectiveness in improving health outcomes. A recent study on the gender dynamics of condom use among high school teenagers in Salvador, Brazil, explored cultural and psychological issues involved in condom use Levinson et al. Citizenship has been conceived as universal for the minority rich, regulated according to market inception for the working class and middle class, and denied to the majority of poor and marginal populations. These programs were directed toward the general population, and often proved to be problematic.
Between 1970 and 2000 the share of urban dwellers living in the coastal cities of the Southeast and Northeast increased from 58 to 80 percent Da Mata et al. The information provided on this website is not official U. The objective was to gain deeper insight into the dynamics of sexual interactions and sexual experiences; that is, what motivated these interactions and who controlled the outcomes. Prior to joining the faculty at Columbia University, in the early 1990s, Dr. Transformative approaches Gradually, public health practitioners found that many prevention programs and media representations were not significantly changing sexual conduct because individual behavior was greatly influenced by the specific contexts within which they took place. Freire, Paulo 1993 Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Paiva, Vera 1993 Sexuality, Condom Use and Gender Norms among Brazilian Teenagers.
Almost all of the sexually active women were monogamous: 92 percent had one steady partner at the time of the interviews Santos et al. Mullings, Leith 1996 On Our Own Terms. Levinson, Ruth Andrea, Clesia Sadigursky, and Gerald M. Electronic document, , accessed November 21. Read about for some powerful new tools. These programs traditionally sought to circumvent barrier methods perceived to interfere with the sexual act or to demand negotiation between men and women, opting instead for oral contraceptives that would largely avoid any necessity of communication between sexual partners. Berkeley: University of California Press.