Employing instrumental variables techniques that correct for endogeneity bias, the empirical evidence suggests that within-country variations in trade openness cause economic growth: a 1 percentage point increase in the ratio of trade over gross domestic product is associated with a short-run increase in growth of approximately 0. Public finance for adaptation measures in developing countries falls short of the investment needed to build climate resilience in a world on a 4 °C warming trajectory. Increased floods and droughts would have economic and political consequences. Our results are robust to the use of estimation procedures that do not impose homogeneity restrictions on the speed of adjustment and short-run parameters, to control for endogenetiy due to possible reverse causality and to several other robustness tests. A substantial share of China? Citations Many of the citations below have been collected in an experimental project, , where can be found.
Flow information is essential to cope with these challenges through water storage, allocation, and use. This inflates prices and increases costs to the productive job-creating sector, which loses competitiveness and export markets, prolonging the cycle of mediocre and jobless growth at home. An appropriate mix of public sector actions will be needed to realize the demographic dividend. The paper concludes that while in theory a strong case for a comprehensive fiscal equalization can be made, in practice fiscal need equalization as part of a comprehensive equalization program introduces significant complexity. Using data from the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance, this study finds that both broad-based and detailed case-based payment systems have improved efficiency as measured by a reduction in average length of stay, with little impact on the number of cases. Sandwiched between India in the south, east and west and the People's Republic of China in the north, Nepal is a small landlocked developing country. We address this knowledge gap by investigating the impact of weather-driven internal migration on labor markets in a post-conflict country, Nepal, using household survey data in 2003 and 2010.
This could be a reflection of lack of dynamism: Nepalese firms are simply not planning to invest, expand, and grow in their unstable and unpredictable environment. Metro areas have large economic bases and therefore little a priori needs for grant financing, yet they have strong dependence on central transfers. That may be linked to the evolution of the middle class: they are more enlightened, more likely to take political actions and have a stronger voice. In order to encourage employment and labor productivity growth, ways should be explored to reduce non-wage labor costs, to pilot flexible labor regimes in special economic zones, and to create additional labor court branches to speed up the resolution of labor cases. Although mean profits increased, this appears largely due to the experiences of a few firms that grew rapidly, with most firms experiencing no increase in income as a result of formalizing. Using a data set of 90 countries, it shows that strong institutions are associated with fewer sovereign default crises. Intra-rural migration from lagging to prospering areas offers broader rural job opportunities, and as farmers are aging globally, more young people are needed in agriculture.
The G20 has had a broader focus on youth employment. Together political instability and poor infrastructure pose the two greatest challenges to Nepal's investment climate and growth in the private sector. Despite of such significant number of enterprises, Nepal continuously suffers from huge trade deficit. The authors argue in the case of Sub-Saharan African countries that private operators, rather than being advocates of reforms in this area, might be responsible for the failures of many of these initiatives. The five procedures are cataracts, pneumonia, coronary bypass, appendectomy, and hip replacement. Additionally, 23 percent use mobile money at least once a day.
In addition, many households live in low-quality dwellings: 15% of low-income households live in overcrowded dwellings and 14% do not have access to an indoor flushing toilet. The analysis relies primarily on the results of the Labor Force Surveys conducted in Serbia in April 2008 and October 2009. These sources of economic growth originated in policy decisions that preserved the functioning of the command and control economy and allowed the country to exploit preferential commercial access to the Russian market in several goods and services. Migration and offshoring are controversial issues in policy terms: both are seen as threats to domestic employment. Third, the Book identifies the specific ways that changes in the global apparel market affected earnings. On the first aspect, it finds that collateral borrowing is prevalent.
And these forces are there to stay. While the need for skills development for youth cuts across all countries, the nature of skills deficits varies. Political instability has stifled growth and limited Nepal's ability to exploit its hydropower and tourism potential. Investments to promote youth inclusion in rural non-farm jobs in dynamic agricultural areas will likely be more effective than similar levels of investment with a similar objective in a stagnant agricultural area. This paper takes a closer look at grant-financing regimes faced by metropolitan areas and their role in facilitating or hindering improvements in economic and social outcomes of residents of metropolitan areas.
Given the extent of the challenge, effective public-private dialogue is required so that the government and the private sector can work in partnership to address these constraints. Second, changes in exports are usually, but not always, good indicators of what happens to wages and employment within countries. Afram and Angelica Salvi Del Pero. For example, adequate vocational training is often not available in rural areas. They also share preferences and values for policy and institutional reforms, as well as higher stakes in property rights and wealth accumulation. Ravallion, Martin Summary: Many more impact evaluations could be done, and at lower unit cost, if evaluators could avoid the need for baseline data using objective socio-economic surveys and rely instead on retrospective subjective questions on how outcomes have changed, asked post-intervention.
In order for Nepal to kick-start private sector-led growth in Nepal, it has to leverage its potential particularly through strengthening trade with China and India, developing its hydropower resources, and adopting policies to target growth in key sectors such as tourism. While it is still too early to quantify the impact of Croatia's introduction of formal diagnostic related groups, it appears that the introduction of both broad and detailed case-based payment systems has improved efficiency in acute hospital care. Offering only information about the registration process and reimbursement for direct registration costs had no impact on formalization. Nepal is urgently in need of private sector investment to promote jobs and growth: 25 per cent of the population live beneath the poverty line and youth unemployment is a chronic problem. An advantage of the enterprise surveys is that similar surveys have been conducted in many other countries.