Rich in detail and full of insights, this work not only presents the first comparative treatment of gender relations in British Christian missionary movements, but also contributes to an understanding of the importance of gender more broadly in the high imperial age. Focusing on the experiences of wives and daughters, female missionaries, educators and medical staff associated with the London Missionary Society, the China Inland Mission and the various Scottish Presbyterian Mission Societies, this work compares and contrasts gender relations within different British Protestant missions in cross-cultural settings. None could question her chosen vocation if she was directly under the authority of God. Focusing on the experiences of wives and daughters, female missionaries, educators and medical staff associated with the London Missionary Society, the China Inland Mission and the various Scot This is the first comprehensive study of the role of gender in British Protestant missionary expansion into China and India during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Much of this growth has occurred in informal networks referred to as , the proliferation of which began in the 1950s when many Chinese Catholics and Protestants began to reject state-controlled structures purported to represent them.
Drawing on extensive published and archival materials, this study examines how gender, race, class, nationality and theology shaped the polity of Protestant missions and Christian interaction with native peoples. My attention to language as a way of understanding structures is the unifying principle in what is a wide-ranging and diverse treatment of the subject. However, references to this station in mission records are scant. This is true for men as well as women, as can be seen by the application of one student who was neither quite sound nor healthy, and he represents himself as having enjoyed fair health for some considerable time and been equal to moderate work. Bowie, Fiona; Deborah Kirkwood, Shirley Ardener Women and Missions: Past and Present: Anthropological and Historical Perceptions The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. From the beginning, both men and women contributed to missions. Besides the London Missionary Society, and the , there were missionaries affiliated with , , , , , and.
At the time of her initial application in 1886, Edith Nicholas appears to have had roughly the same family and church background as both Miss Barclay and Miss Ashburner. Successive foreign secretaries sent and received official and nonofficial correspondence to and from individual missionaries and district committees; the personal nature of the correspondence is representative of the attention every missionary and each situation received. Rather than providing a romantic portrayal of fulfilled professional freedom, this work argues that women's labor in Christian missions, as in the secular British Empire and domestic society, remained under-valued both in terms of remuneration and administrative advancement, until well into the twentieth century. However, the chapters that follow indicate the important part that individual character and belief played in the development of a specific mission district or station. Sister and brother Rose and Horace Theobald travelled to Benares together in 1892, and they lived together until she married a missionary supported by the Sunday School Union in 1900 see Appendix. I speak strongly on the subject as I have several trying experiences which I should be glad to save my successor. It is particularly notable that male candidates represented themselves by using and were assessed on entirely different criteria than were women.
But, from all I know her, I should not think it right to expose her to any severe test. Small recorded her experiences as a young missionary in north India in a short didactic autobiography. I extend the warmest of appreciation to Andrew Porter, Peter Marshall, David Killingray and Brian Stanley. But by your fruits shall ye be known. Wardlaw Thompson, 13 December 1900. Staff were moved around frequently, which left stations without the leadership of a missionary.
Rich in details and full of insights, this work not only presents the first comparative treatment of gender relations in British Christian missionary movements, but also contributes to an understanding of the importance of gender more broadly in the high imperial age. Further, the training was at least in part aimed at seeing if the women could cope with living in community on the mission field. The struggles between them and the new female missionaries who carefully advocated a more varied role continued throughout the period. Nationality, gender, and religion are useful categories to be applied to the missions that developed in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. The men and women whose religious beliefs were put into action as members of or workers in missions were both constrained and empowered by their experiences in industrialising Great Britain. In 1879, an administrative altercation arose in Calcutta once again.
Wardlaw Thompson, 26 March 1912. Last but not at all least, this work rests on the generous support of my husband David. He also quite clearly had ideas that clashed with the others with regard to mission purpose. I am blessed daily by the boundless energy and enthusiasm of my children, Rebecca Anne and Gavin James. While men tended to focus on power and authority and the financial dependence of their families, women stressed social relationships as the pattern of responsibility to the various members of their families. The Missionary Wife and Her Work. The Almora mission was established in the mountainous foothills of the Himalayas in 1850, and like the Scottish missions in Darjeeling, it benefited from the support of local teaplantation owners and managers, from local government, and from working in an area peopled by a dislocated population.
Furthermore, the single most important distinguishing feature of this group is the evangelical commitment to spiritual and social uplift through mission work, and, as such, they should again be considered a select group. Both of his parents had died young. Syrett to the Directors, 24 November 1899. This situation is repeated again and again in the mission record. Women in missionary work—Great Britain—History.
Several families lobbied long and hard to get their daughters posts. It would be a great help to be able to sing and play and to know some foreign language. He is very much opposed to it now. Although each mission created structured categories with which to assess female candidates, their judgements were extremely fluid; all were subject to the difficulties inherent in defining qualities that described women in relation to family and society. Focusing on the experiences of wives and daughters, female missionaries, educators and medical staff associated with the London Missionary Society, the China Inland Mission and the various Scottish Presbyterian Mission Societies, it compares and contrasts gender relations within different British Protestant missions in cross-cultural settings. .