In both cases, he thinks the substances will most likely be used along with other drugs. Interferon: The Science and Selling of a Miracle Drug. The patients treated with radiation and chemotherapy had the highest incidence of reactivation of each of the viruses 15-19%. Many studies using in vitro and animal models of human disease were undertaken, but the number of clinical studies was few, and these were small in scale. Depression of interferon production in response to viruses did not correlate with infection as well as did lymphocyte transformation. In such patients, any such virus infection added to the stresses of cancer and anticancer drug treatment is potentially deadly.
Human leukocyte interferon was administered to 38 patients in 113 separate courses. Four of eight patients had objective tumor regression, indicating that further investigation of this biologically active material is warranted. This titer fell to 1:1,000 after seven days. Primary infection was more frequently symptomatic. In an uncontrolled trial, 29 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection were treated with 93 courses of adenine arabinoside at doses ranging from 2. He did his and at and then moved to the , where he worked in 's laboratory.
Absolute numbers of T lymphocytes were also very low. All gentamicin-resistant strains appeared after 1974. Transformation to herpes simplex virus-I antigen was adversely affected by depleting either thymus-derived T lymphocytes or bone marrow-derived B lymphocytes together with monocytes from cultures. Interferon is a naturally produced and very potent antiviral protein that Isaacs and Lindemann discovered to be a mediator of viral interference in 1957. Leukocyte interferon has been of therapeutic value in herpes zoster infections, in patients with cancer, and in patients with hepatitis B infection. Therefore, pharmacokinetic studies of systemically administered and locally injected leukocyte interferon were performed in 2 North American patients with suspected rabies who showed no clinically important side effects of this therapy.
Friedman's and This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. It is suggested that these phenomena may be related to the capacity of the virus to persist in the infected host for long periods. These findings support the idea that some metabolic event is required for progress through the G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle and is susceptible to interferon action. This study demonstrated the feasibility of administering vidarabine monophosphate and interferon to outpatients. None of 57 urine specimens from 21 patients that were culture-negative for cytomegalovirus gave false-positive results. Antibody titers were maintained at levels of 1:10,000 to 1:30,000 throughout the 10 week period post transplantation. The number of days of new-vesicle formation in the primary dermatome decreased mean, 2.
In addition, the spread of virus within an infected individual involves a wide variety of cells in which antiviral drugs may or may not act with similar efficacy. Tyrrell said side effects have not been a problem in his common-cold studies, because interferon was administered by nasal spray. None of 57 urine specimens from 21 patients that were culture-negative for cytomegalovirus gave false-positive results. Major toxic side effects included fever, fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms, myalgias, and headache. Interferons have now been used in both prophylaxis and treatment of a number of human viral infections.
For example, adenine arabinoside as well as acyclovir and human leukocyte interferon appear active against acute varicella zoster and herpes simplex infections in controlled trials. Interferons are proteins elaborated by infected cells that protect noninfected cells from viral infection. Treated patients had a trend toward less acute pain, and significantly P less than or equal to 0. Whether this is a cause, an effect or something wholly unrelated to the course of the disease is still unknown. C, although stimulation of circulating interferon was equal to controls.
Recent studies have shown that some patients seem to have a deficiency in interferon, said Dr. A 10-fold increase in the dose of infectious units of either type of inoculum was associated with a 10-fold or greater decrease in interferon sensitivity. This inhibitory effect was dose related and independent of the erythropoietin concentration used. Interferons documents the proceedings of a major international conference on Chemistry and Biology of Interferons: Relationship to Therapeutics held at Squaw Valley, California, in March 1982. Shedding of herpes simplex viruses recurred in 3 patients after acyclovir therapy.
Interferon production by lymphocytes in response to cytomegalovirus antigen was also lower among untreated lymphoma patients than among normal patients, but lymphocyte transformation was not. This was usually accompanied by a fall in HbsAg titer and a transient rise in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity. Quantitation of T-cell numbers and phytohemagglutinin transformation did not correlate with the presence of viral cellular immunity in treated patients. These results suggest that passive immunization modifies cytomegalovirus infection in humans and prevents interstitial pneumonia in marrow transplants especially when leukocyte transfusions are not used. Interferon production was also restored by combination of cells passed through histamine columns with anti-Ia treated cells, or those passed through nylon wool columns with anti-Thy-1 treated cells. Various host defenses act both at the portal of entry and in the target organs with relative efficacy which differs from one virus to another -- or even between strains.
The same patients given a placebo preparation failed to show this enhanced natural killer cell activity. Various host defenses act both at the portal of entry and in the target organs with relative efficacy which differs from one virus to another -- or even between strains. Advertisement Interferon was discovered in 1957 as a protein produced by virusinfected cells. This has not been noted in other patients receiving this preparation and could not be explained by the development of anti-interferon antibodies. In recent years scientists have discovered that interferon is not just one substance, as was originally thought, but a whole family consisting of three main types, now known as interferons alpha, beta and gamma. Although the course of the disease was not effected by interferon induction, administration of the drug produced hematologic and urinary alterations resembling the hemolytic-uremic syndrome in one patient.