The article and the concept of definiteness in language. This sort of assistance is likely to make you a lot more U. Comments on this issue will be very welcome. However, sometimes the meaning and use of articles in a language may be based on still other distinctions. What complicates the analysis is the phenomenon of quasi-indefinite cardinal articles, such as the English a and the reduced some often conventionally referred to as sm, e. Fur- noun phrases like the car, proper nouns, possessives, personal pronouns, demonstratives, and universal quantifiers refer to identifiable objects or represent the totality of conceivable objects which match the description in a given context. Are demonstratives universally definite in meaning? It surveys a large number of languages to discover the range of variation in relation to definiteness and related grammatical phenomena, such as demonstratives, possessives and personal pronouns.
However, they are also capable of attaching to at least some nouns and prepositions. See Corbett 2006:135-136 for a brief overview of this phenomenon analysed as multiple marking of definiteness within the noun phrase, and Danon 2001; 2010 for comprehensive discussion of the distribution of definiteness marking within the Hebrew construct state, including an overview and evaluation of theoretical syntactic analyses which have been proposed to model this phenomenon. Expressions of 'definiteness' Definiteness is a category of the noun phrase. The ways to access each of the check out, and if all the details are genuine, we're going to release on our internet site. As with other grammatical categories, it is also to be expected that there are other uses of definiteness which do not relate to identifiability - one of such uses is inclusiveness a term due to Hawkins 1978 , which is particularly appropriate for non-referential uses of definiteness with plural and mass noun phrases. Thus, she suggests that the major distinction is between indication of an individuated entity referential and indication of a class of entities or any entity in this class or property of the class nonreferential.
Foundational Works and Comprehensive Overviews Definiteness is the central referential property of nominal expressions, in linguistics most often related to the use of the definite article in languages that have definite articles. The main interest of the book lies, above all, in L argues in Ch. Lyons 1999:213-215 for an interesting discussion of definiteness and animacy with respect to the widely used 'animacy hierarchy' which helps express cross-linguistic generalisations. Some languages which do not grammaticalise definiteness may be argued to compensate by marking other distinctions with a similar function e. Similarly, there is an entry for 'contrastive stress' but none for 'stress'.
For example, under 'language process- ing' the reader will find 26 page references but without any indication as to what aspect of processing might be discussed in those pages. Some languages lack definiteness marking in their noun phrase structure. Among the claims advanced are that definiteness does not occur in all languages, though the pragmatic concept which it grammaticalizes probably does. The volume also includes author and subject indices. The overall conclusion one can draw from this volume is that the study of atypical the Det erminer position, it cannot be said that this feature is universal. An adjective inflecting according to the strong paradigm shows full agreement features.
In such cases, the inflections appear further to the right. In: Haspelmath, Martin, Matthew S. Consideration is also given to the origins and evolution of definite articles in the light of the comparative and theoretical findings. The most interesting examples of a complex mechanism determining the marking of definiteness within the noun phrase in Modern Hebrew are found in the so-called 'construct states', which are noun-noun constructs. Lyons 1999:51 argues that markers of indefiniteness turn out in nearly all cases to be cardinal articles rather than true indefinite articles. Inclusiveness expresses the fact that the reference is made to the totality of the objects or mass in the context which satisfy the description C. Nonetheless, we'd take pleasure in if you have almost any information regarding that, and therefore are prepared to offer the idea.
Furthermore, apart from saying that the particular determiners require the selection of the particular adjectival paradigms, it is difficult to characterise this feature in terms of its values. Also, see Corbett 2006:135-137 for discussion of multiple marking of definiteness in Modern Hebrew, Maltese, and Norwegian. Syntactic definiteness in the grammar of Modern Hebrew. This observa- tion provides a starting point for the survey of various manifestations of definiteness in Ch. It surveys a large number of languages to discover the range of variation in relation to definiteness and related grammatical phenomena, such as demonstratives, possessives and personal pronouns. In: Haspelmath, Martin, Matthew S.
A more sophisticated subject index would have been helpful. In this framework the grammatical category of person is practically identical with the grammatical Cambridge textbooks in linguistics. Establishes the inclusiveness theory of definiteness as a development of the uniqueness theory. Among the claims advanced are that definiteness does not occur in all languages, though the pragmatic concept which it grammaticalizes probably does. Even though I haven't read the final part of this book, I'm finally going to mark it as read, since it is more of an encyclopedia than a book that necessarily needs to be read in its totality. Hence, although potentially there are three ways in which definiteness distinction can be expressed in languages which distinguish simple definites and indefinites C. However, in order to describe adjectival inflection, after separating out gender, number and case, we are still left with three different adjectival paradigms, referred to as 'strong', 'mixed' and 'weak'.
As degree modifiers, they are colloquial, though they have a more formal counterpart: so. The status of 'definiteness' as a feature Most commonly, definiteness is not a feature by our definition, but an additional piece of information selected for the noun phrase that may be expressed through a free-form determiner, an affixal marker, or a clitic. It is significant for many people that most accurate about Christopher Lyons. The remaining forms unmarked are shared across all three paradigms: singular plural masculine neuter feminine nominative gut-er S gut-es S gut-e gut-en W accusative gut-en gut-es S gut-e gut-en W genitive gut-en gut-en gut-en W gut-en W dative gut-en W gut-en W gut-en W gut-en Finally, the following is the weak paradigm for the same adjective. Problem cases Definiteness in German: a feature of agreement or government? Paper given at the Interdisciplinary Approaches to Relative Clauses conference, Cambridge, 13-15 September 2007. The feature of 'gender' does have a semantic core, or basis, but there are few languages with purely semantically assigned gender values.
The questions which arise are: if it is definiteness that is the governed feature, we should not expect to find its values on the governors. Topic, Focus and the Mental Representations of Discourse Referents. These conclusions are somewhat surprising since several of the chapters present serious challenges for models exclusively designed to account for 'typical' cases. Among the claims advanced are that definiteness does not occur in all languages, though the pragmatic concept which it grammaticalizes probably does. In other words, definiteness has something to do with the identifiability or the inclusiveness of the description. Lyons in several places in his 1999 monograph on definiteness.
This means that the assumption that demonstratives are inherently definite is maintained, which implies that definiteness exists in some form in all languages 1999:107. Definite expressions cover personal pronouns, proper names, demonstratives, definite noun phrases, and universally quantified expressions. Consideration is also given to the origins and evolution of definite articles in the light of the comparative and theoretical findings. Therefore, even though definiteness is not a formal category in Mandarin, it is nevertheless an element of discourse organisation which corresponds to the identifiability of the referent. In the spirit of this volume, the list of criteria that define typicality could be continued and so could the list of future useful contributions. Lyons argues that definiteness is not inherent in possessives 1999:22-26; 124-133. Similarly, there is an entry for 'contrastive stress' but none for 'stress'.