The configuration of expert groups in the European union. Most of these are what will usually be considered a university department, but centres and other more specialised units are also represented. The 25 social science institutes received in total 7 per cent of their contract funding from abroad in 1997, increasing to 10 per cent in 2005. We concentrate on reporting differences related to mobility status, but when relevant to our hypotheses, we also look at differences by subject field and selected other variables. These analyses confirmed that mobile students graduated abroad are more likely to work abroad than mobile students graduated domestically and non-mobile students.
Edler 2003 , which leads to a continuous internal competition between the sites. The figures vary quite considerably from one biennial set of statistics to another, which probably mirrors restructuring such as mergers and takeovers. If so, it would be reasonable to expect disciplinary variations in the degree of recent internationalisation. Samspill og kommersialisering som før. Institutional autonomy in flagship universities.
The European Debate on the Transformation of Higher Education Systems. The book is concerned with the ways in which research and higher education become internationalised under specific conditions. University Autonomy and Organizational Change Dynamics. Dynamics of cooperation in research and innovation partnerships. International contacts and collaboration among university faculty members are complex processes affected by individual choice and political initiatives as well as collaborative and competitive characteristics of the international scientific communities.
According to a globalisation hypothesis, we would expect territorial patterns of cooperation and geographical proximity to be less important, and the geographical distribution of such contacts to disperse over time. Yet, the Nordic organised dimension has to some extent felt the impact of Europe cf. Cape Town: Maskew Miller, 22—34. All variables are based on self-reported data from the questionnaire, including retrospective information for the period 3. En Studie i Sosial Organisasjon, Bergen: Department of Sociology, University of Bergen.
Country size is, however, not the only factor with bearing on the extent of international collaboration. Bibliometric analysis show changes at the national level, but so far we have no analysis at the level of subject fields and institutional categories Sivertsen 2001. For the natural sciences, the share increased from 40 per cent in 1991 to 58 per cent in 2003, for medicine from 24 to 45 per cent, and for the social sciences from 22 to 33 per cent Fig. In 1991—1993, the variation was from 16 to 33 per cent, while in 2001—2003, the variation was from 25 to 41 per cent. Institutional variations in the development of international co-authorship were analysed in the above faculties for the four Norwegian universities Table 2. In terms of international co-authorship, we found no particularly large differences between the two sectors see Table 2. Perspektiver fra vitenskapelig ansatte og studenter.
Constructing national higher education, research and innovation systems also implies defining the relationship between such systems and other national spheres, including policy arenas and economic sectors. Looking at co-publishing with different world regions, there is a very strong increase in co-authorship with partners in the European Union. We also find a group of other natural sciences like physics, mathematics and zoology see Table 2. The company describes the academic partner in the United States. European integration and the transformation of higher education. The least prevalent reason for foreign travel is participation in international peer reviewing and evaluation work. Institutionalising Governance for a Europe of Knowledge: the application of the Open Method of Coordination in research and education policy.
Relevant working experience reduces the likelihood of unemployment, but only for those graduated domestically, indicating that shaping professional networks while studying is important, in line with network theories presented earlier. There may, however, be differences with respect to industry, firm size and other characteristics of the firms see Section 4. Nor has a distinct development towards Europeanisation of contact patterns precluded an increase in worldwide contacts. Thus, the international companies do not seem to follow formal strategies whereby foreign suppliers are preferred. Whereas the Norwegian knowledge system is the empirical case in focus, this case is set in a broader context by using comparative data from a wide range of countries and accounting for the general trends and its broader relevance.
Small levels of new funding may have large effects on how research is structured. This is not idle theorizing, it corresponds to concrete facts. Category: Education Author : B. The different institutions and sectors show some variations in their degree of internationalisation. The Norwegian University of Science and Technology is not included. University reform and institutional autonomy: A framework for analysing the living autonomy. International research collaboration has to some extent been mainstreamed into the more locally-oriented fields of learning.
A closer look at the sources of funding reveals greater variations between the groups of institutes. The institutes had a larger share of international funding than the higher education institutions in the 1970s and 1980s, reaching 5 per cent in 1991. Internationalisation should be explained by the search for particular competences rather than anything else, perhaps even competences that may be available nationally. The problems addressed by research and higher education policies have become increasingly international in nature. The field is currently undergoing one of the regular large-scale evaluations coordinated by the Research Council of Norway, and a White Paper on the humanities will be published in 2017.
In Chapter 7, the focus is on Nordic cooperation that can be characterised as a specific form of internationalisation in higher education i. There is a bias in favour of larger companies, but almost three-quarters of the sample consisted of firms with fewer than 500 employees. Research Council of Norway 2000, Internasjonalisering av Norsk Forskning - Utfordringer, Anbefalinger og Tiltak. For other such organisations the international business community is of much greater importance, while for others, international organisations and bilateral arrangements play the major role. The median for these 120 departments was 6. Samarbeid og kunnskapsoverføring blant vitenskapelig ansatte, I: Nicoline Frølich red. Individual level self-organised international collaboration is increasingly supplemented by national and supranational organised activities, and by market oriented activity with a global scope.