Examples of heat stabilizers that may be used are organic phosphite compounds and other organic substances such as trihydroxy-butyrophenone. The thermoplastic elastomeric films of the present invention may contain from about 40% to about 80% elastomeric block copolymer; preferably from about 40% to about 60%; especially preferred is from about 45% to about 55%. Such compounds are thermally more stable than polydispersed telechelic commercially available diols. Pigments are typically added to the resin blend in the form of concentrates, formulated to improve dispersion of the pigment, at levels of from about 0. Recently, the optical examination of these materials combined with mechanical testing has given investigatiors new insight into this complex morphology. Extruder 50 is, for example, a Braybender 1. Shoe 1 was the least stiff of the two shoes with cushioning column systems, yet it displayed a significantly higher impact loading rate during running, possibly due to rearfoot motion alterations induced by the stiffer shoe.
Radical polymerization of the methacrylate end-capped ether, hexane, and propane diol side-chain siloxanes with hydrophilic monomers, such as dimethylacrylamide, and a strengthening agent, isobornylmethacrylate, resulted in transparent hydrogels possessing a wide range of water contents, high oxygen permeability, and a low modulus of elasticity and, for the propane diol side-chain siloxanes, excellent hydrolytic stability. Such film surface treatments can be used to reduce blocking alone or in combination with other antiblock methods described herein. Thermoplastic elastomeric films of this general type are disclosed in the following U. In contrast, as a sample enters the flow regime, plastic deformation takes the glass into a high mobility state that is independent of any predeformation aging history. This chapter aims to present a review on barrier properties of filled and pristine polyurethanes and their relationship to shape memory properties.
The thermoplastic elastomeric films produced from such blends are from about 0. Industrial Chemicals having a vinyl acetate content of 28% and a melt index of 5. Both cushioning column shoes showed impact force characteristics similar to those of a top-model running shoe Shoe 3 , and improved cushioning performance over shoes previously tested in similar conditions. The substrate contains an array of microscale pyramidal features, and the electrode comprises a polymer composite. The block copolymer has at least two monoalkenyl arene polymer end blocks and at least one elastomeric conjugated diene midblock.
Antistatic agents may be incorporated in films of the present invention; examples of such agents include ethoxylated amines and quarternary amine salts having organic constituents of about 12-18 carbon atoms in length. In order to minimize degradation of films of the present invention during processing by extrusion or other techniques, heat stabilizers and antioxidants may be added to the polymer formulations. The ether side-chain siloxane-based hydrogels exhibited poor hydrolytic stability. A brief summary of developments in allied fields, such as barrier properties of filled and pristine polymers in general and their mathematical modeling is also discussed. The extraordinary physical properties exhibited by block polymers have been ascribed to the presence of a multiphase microstructure in which the higher modulus phase acts as a quasi-crosslink or filler particle. In measuring tear resistance of samples of the Examples below, the rate of jaw separation of the Instron machine was 25.
Examples of thermoplastic elastomers used for such purposes are disclosed in the following U. The speed of chill rolls 54, 55 and 56 and windup roll 57 are controlled so as to draw film 60 to a thickness of about 0. They are indispensable in the study of the morphology of the complex blends of homopolymers or random copolymers with block copolymers. Heavy surface erosion of the non-porous layer of the combi film was observed after 180 days, turning the combi film into a porous film. The preferred antiblock substances used in films of the present invention are blends of polyethylene and silica. Plasma-aided manufacturing, the use of electrically charged particles in the manufacturing process, is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Mechano-optical behavior of these polymers exhibited multiple regime behavior.
The present invention involves thin films of thermoplastic elastomers which are blends of certain monoalkenyl arene and conjugated diene block copolymers and certain ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. The rate of jaw separation of the Instron Machine used for testing samples in the Examples below was 25. Applications include modification of brittle plastics, notably polystyrene, to increase impact resistance and improvement of tear strength of polyolefin films. Several physical properties may be varied, to make the materials adaptable to many applications. June 17, 1980 Zweig August 5, 1980 Himes et al. Using the statistical Student's test, the importance of the factors that influence the above characteristics have been established.
It is still a further object of the present invention to provide such thermoplastic elastomeric films which can be produced on conventional film processing equipment. Immediate technological applications of shape memory polyurethanes in breathable textiles and in refractive surgery are suggested where the barrier properties of the polymers determine the performance. Blocking is the tendency of a film to adhere to itself. The pellets of the components are dry blended prior to introduction to an extruder. Work on the block polymers of styrene and butadiene indicates the potential of multiphase polymers of controlled solid state structure.
The film is held at that extension for 10 minutes at room temperature and then allowed to relax. Slip agents may be incorporated into the films of the present invention to reduce drag over rollers and other forming equipment. Such films are particularly useful as low cost elastic members for disposable wearing apparel such as diapers and incontinent briefs; they may be used as leg bands or waist bands in such applications. This paper describes the activities of the National Science Foundations Engineering Research Center for Plasma-Aided Manufacturing at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and at the University of Minnesota. These polymers have the useful property of behaving like rubber at normal use temperatures, without the need for vulcanization. The maximum force required during the separation of two strips is recorded as the blocking force; it is reported in grams per 2.
Examples are presented to highlight the influence of processing conditions, filler geometry and filler surface characteristics, and the nature of matrix polymers on shape memory properties. Whenever one phase in a blend of a block polymer with a homopolymeror random copolymer becomes the continuum, its properties dominate the overall properties of the composite. However in some special instances, particularly for ballistic components containing either aramid fiber or high performance polyethylene fiber in a matrix resin, minimal adhesion between fiber and matrix resin is preferred. The first two papers in this volume draw attention to the various problems that should be considered in the preparation of block polymers of precisely defined structure from styrene and butadiene or isoprene by anionic polymerization. November 29, 1977 Himes April 4, 1978 Shadle 4140162 February 1979 Gajewski et al. The equipment used and process conditions were the same as those for Example 2.