By situating evil as an effect of freedom rather than as an effect of human finitude, Kant opened the way to what María Pía Lara 2001 calls a postmetaphysical understanding of evil 1. After a brief overview of the legal debates, I will trace the contributions and limitations of the concept of social death for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to pose anew the question of the central harm of genocide. Yet scholars of myth and religion have long since pointed to the ways in which these concepts are deeply embedded in one another. The concept of death has excited interest from the earliest sources of Western philosophy. The role of the dead in nurturing the seeds is familiar to us in the function of the earth mother. Thus, death and birth both belonged to an unending cycle of becoming. Whereas some clergymen reacted to the Lisbon earthquake by seeking a reason and justification in human sins for this natural catastrophe, most thinkers refused to do so.
Her present research focuses on philosophical and juridical aspects of gender based violence. Feminist philosophers can contribute to studies of war and genocide by keeping an attentive eye to the role of gender for the victims and perpetrators of genocide, as well as by drawing on decades of reflection on issues of power, domination, violence, vulnerability, and embodiment. A second direction of inquiry seeks to develop philosophical concepts that conceptualize the central harms of sexual violence in war time, and to use these concepts to re-interpret the concept of genocide. In this respect, feminist philosophers like their non-feminist colleagues have generally had a low profile in the field of genocide studies. The problem of evil most broadly understood is the problem of how to make sense of the world, when that world is ineradicably a place of suffering. Do such narratives rationalize the wartime use of sexual violence as necessary for political change Matthes 2000: 168-69? Currently she works in an interdisciplinary project, which studies the same theme in the context of ancient Greek literature. Bullying takes place in a wide variety of contexts, including schools, workplace, and cyberspace.
One direction of inquiry in the research debates follows the legal judgments that issue from the courts on sexual violence in war-time and considers the adequacy of these judgments in addressing these crimes. Kant's notion of objectivity makes normative this objectification of relations between persons and things. Drawing on examples from biology, dream interpretation, psychological pathologies, myth, philosophy, religion, and literature, she argues that becoming or creation is a result of, and conditioned by, processes of destruction Spielrein 1912: 489. But a review of the literature on bullying indicates how deeply interconnected the concepts of violence and bullying are with each other. Certain aspects of the feminine become absorbed into philosophy through the use of metaphors, but in a desexualized manner. I argue for framing vulnerability through a critical theory of the victim which explores the interconnections between injurability and agency, rather than treating them as oppositional terms. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's Theodicy 1985 provided a defense of God's justice in reference to three kinds of evil: metaphysical, natural, and moral.
For example, the story of the rape of Lucretia portrays her rape and subsequent suicide as motivating the overthrow of tyranny and the introduction of republican rule in Rome. Similarly, public shock was generated in Japan in 1986 when a 13-year-old schoolboy committed suicide in Tokyo. And this list does not include. In simplest forms of life, for example with certain flies, the parent dies with the production of new life Spielrein 1912: 466-67. The problem of evil in her usage thus becomes coterminous with the struggle for meaning, with the effort of human beings to understand themselves and their place in the world. At the same time, it answers current objections to feminism, arguing that in today's world it is as compelling as ever to probe the impact of the dualism of the sexes.
This volume presents radically divergent interpretations of Kant from feminist perspectives. Ebba Witt-Brattström is Professor of Nordic literature at the University of Helsinki. He reminds us of the need to distinguish between calls for prosecution and punishment on the one hand and the desire for revenge and vindictiveness on the other. Baier, Marcia Baron, Monique David-Ménard, Kim Hall, Cornelia Klinger, Jane Kneller, Sarah Kofman, Marcia Moen, Herta Nagl-Docekal, Adrian M. The review essays and book reviews expand the discussion to consider ethical responses to evil acts, as well as methodological discussions of the paradigms used to understand evil.
Because the intellectual resources that were available in the mid-eighteenth century led thinkers to expect a transparency of knowledge of both the social and natural worlds, the Lisbon earthquake also led to an intellectual earthquake. In the history of political narratives, one also finds ample evidence of the coupling of sexual violence with the founding of a new kind of political community. In contrast to standard philosophical accounts, which tend to employ an individualistic framework, this essay offers a situated understanding of harm that. And what are alternative narratives to war? What is new in the late twentieth century is the political visibility, of war rape which has had decisive consequences for international law. With this physical invisibility has been a political invisibility. What is one to do with the knowledge of the Nazi death camps? The problems that youths face are not peripheral to society, but mirror central problems of social life in important ways. Natural evil refers to our pain and suffering in the world.
We have become used to thinking of sexual violence as a phenomenon that takes place between warring parties, so that rape is understood as an attack on the enemy who is unable to protect its women and its territory. In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Other forms of evil that create life-long scars are acts of torture, terrorism, and domestic battery. Misplaced gratitude is also dangerous because of its tendency to bind one to the abuser, and thereby to make one become complicit in one's own abuse. Greek and Christian sources, which views the body, sexuality, and in particular women's sexuality as a source of pollution. The problem of evil is older than the story of Job, a just and faithful man who experienced evil events through the loss of family, health, and property. In this chapter, I explore strategies for understanding the relationship between bullying and violence. Introducing a new definition of bullying, this book goes on to discuss directions for future research and action, including more informed intervention strategies and re-thinking methods of prevention.
In this discussion piece, I engage with Brad Evans' and Julian Reid's reflections on resilience in a recent issue of this journal. Instead, these feminist writers resituate Kantian questions in the politics of everyday life and emphasize the embodied nature of knowledge, morality, and aesthetics. Sometimes, bullying is a matter of life and death. For modern authors, it is not God but human beings who become judges of the significance of evil in human affairs see Cicovacki 2001, 83-94. This aroused considerable concern among the general public and in the mass media, which resulted in the Norwegian Ministry of Education launching a nationwide campaign against bullying in 1983.
In short, why feminist philosophy? Horror discloses our moral sentiment that our beliefs about the world have been radically undermined, and it expresses our protest against our inability to bring reality into conformity with our will. Academy Fellow Docent Sara Heinämaa Helsinki is an internationally well-known phenomenologist and Beauvoir expert. Such narratives are necessary for addressing the concepts of evil and of witnessing in the ethical discourse after Auschwitz. Understanding the problems youths face is central to understanding the societies in which they live. Instead of legitimating some wars as just, it is better to acknowledge that both the situation of war and moral judgments about war are ambiguous. I will study the implications of war rape-not mentioned by Arendt, but discussed briefly by Agamben-for their reflections on the relation between the body and the concept of the political.
In the pre-Socratic tradition, Heraclitus discussed death and birth as two equal principles of life. She is author of Jean-Paul Sartre 2009 and editor of several volumes in philosophy of existence, including Beauvoir and Sartre: The Riddle of Influence 2009, ed. Why separate, and therefore marginalize, women's scholarship from scholarship as a whole? Digital Library Federation, December 2002. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth. In 1990, battlefields included Afghanistan, Angola, Columbia, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, India, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, Mozambique, Peru, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, and Tibet Vickers 1993, 2. And what are alternative narratives to war? His essay, though, also points to the internal limitations of legal trials in the healing of victims and societies.