The plan is also known as the , and there were further variations on it often consisting of three to the east and one or more to the west —a good example is the Church of the Holy Apostles, Thessalonika early C14 , where stones individually framed horizontally and vertically with bricks , herring-bone, and other patterns occur. Rome is traditionally said to have been founded as a Topic Pages contain an overview, definitions, biographies, related topics, images, plus links to relevant articles and other content provided by your library. They depict the best examples of topical architecture covering the most significant ones. The long, narrow basilica, which had been Constantine's favored form of church, continued to be the dominant form of church in the West, while rounder, domed, central-plan styles of churches, like the early Christian circular baptistries, became more popular in the Byzantine East. It dates to the second half of the 2nd century and is the third largest dome known from the Roman world. This structure is known to be built using both the basilican and centralized plan.
And that new church is the Hagia Sophia we know and love today. Byzantine structures featured soaring spaces and sumptuous decoration: columns and inlay, mosaics on the vaults, inlaid-stone pavements, and sometimes gold coffered ceilings. The in was likely built with a wooden dome over the shrine by the end of the 4th century. The decorative character of external facades depended largely on the arrangement of the facing bricks, which were not always laid horizontally, but sometimes obliquely, sometimes in the form of the , sometimes in the or herringbone pattern, and in many other similar designs, giving great variety to the facades. It was also alternately known as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Constantinople Byzantium became the capital of the Eastern Empire in 476, with the fall of , and in 1054 theological and political differences between Constantinople and Rome led to the breach between Eastern and Western Christianity see. Byzantine silks, the manufacture of which was a state monopoly, were also eagerly sought and treasured as goods of utmost luxury. The architectural chronology of the central and eastern Balkans is unsettled during the period of the , in part because of similarity between Justinian-era churches from the 6th century and what may have been a revival of that style in the late 9th and early 10th centuries under the. Octagonal rooms of the in were covered with cloister vaults and have been dated to 145-160. This model was favored in the West. There was no official church blueprint imposed by the church hierarchy, but the cross-in-square plan became the most common with a dome built over four supporting arches using pendentives - curved triangular forms to bridge the gap between adjoining arches and convert a square base into a circular one.
These domes were frequently constructed of bricks or of some light porous stone, such as pumice, or even of pottery, as at S. Three 100-foot 30 m wide exedras at Trajan's Baths have patterns of coffering that, as in the Pantheon, align with lower niches only on the axes and diagonals and, also as in the Pantheon, that alignment is sometimes with the ribs between the coffers, rather than with the coffers themselves. Byzantine architecture mostly developed during the rule of Justinian I, in the 6th century. In southeastern Europe, monumental national cathedrals built in the capital cities of formerly Ottoman areas used Neo-Classical or Neo-Byzantine styles. This mixture has been holding the structure together for 1500 years. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. The dome and pendentives are supported by four large arches springing from four piers.
The ruling class lived in urban mansions or palaces and governed from fine civic buildings, and most citizens enjoyed the comforts of piped water and drainage, fountains, pools and bath houses with under-floor heating, even flushed latrines; the water was often delivered from sources outside the city by aqueducts and stored in cisterns. Speculation on design influences have ranged from Arab influence transmitted via the recently built domed octagon chapels at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem or the in Islamic Cairo, to Caucasian buildings such as the. While the imagery is no less lavish than earlier examples, imagery has been simplified e. The Hagia Sophia is considered the greatest example of Byzantine architecture Pendentives Though the dome of the Hagia Sophia is a bit smaller than the dome of the Roman Pantheon, it rests much higher up in the structure, making the dome stand out much more in the building's profile. Imposts are typically trapezoid in form and have a monogram or cross carved on them.
The dome rose over a ground floor, gallery, and clerestory and may have had an oculus. Periodic earthquakes in the region have caused three partial collapses of the dome and necessitated repairs. Byzantine of or pertaining to the ancient city of , or Constantinople. Hagia Sophia stayed as the biggest cathedral in the world from 537 until 1626 when St. Some of these can still be seen. In Ulrich, Roger Bradley; Quenemoen, Caroline K. Smaller windows filled with thin sheets of may have existed over each of the curtain-covered side niches and below the cornice at the base of the dome.
Byzantine craftsmen and builders adapted the Roman system of construction with concrete and brickwork by adding a surface sheathing of marble. Early examples rested directly on the walls of round rooms and featured a central for ventilation and light. Other examples include the domed naves of 1105—28 , c. It is almost like a triangular segment of a spherical surface. If the construction project involved an imperial building or a church, then the emperor or bishop was involved, in the case of private sponsors, they too would have had a say in what the building looked like when finished.
Domes were particularly well suited to the of baths circular in plan to facilitate even heating from the walls. Foreign rulers employed Byzantine artists even if they were enemies of the Byzantine Empire. It is about 32 meters 105 ft wide and contains 40 radial ribs that spring from between the 40 windows at its base. An interest in Roman models may have been an expression of the religious maneuvering of the region between the Church of Constantinople and that of Rome. In both and Christian from C4 , basilican and centralized churches were erected in numbers, although from the end of C6 the domed centralized plan, much influenced by architecture in , began to reach heights of elaboration. In Boardman, John; Griffin, Jasper; Murray, Oswyn. The use of squinches to transition from those eight supports to the base of the dome has led to speculation of a design origin in Arab, Sasanian, or Caucasian architecture, although with a Byzantine interpretation.
The second most important church in the city after the Hagia Sophia, it fell into disrepair after the between 1204 and 1261 and it was razed to the ground by in 1461 to build his on the site. Walls were sheeted internally with marble and and domes with coloured glass mosaics on a golden background. It was also during the Early Byzantine period that artists started painting holy icons depicting almost alien-like figures of the Christ, his mother, the Madonna and Child together, and various saints and angels with long, sad faces, big eyes, and slender bodies. Fires in 1071 and 1075 damaged the building and the central covering collapsed in 1103. It also has a small cross-section, just like the Western basilica is crossed by a transept, or bema, at the eastern end, giving the whole building the appearance of a cross if seen from above. Formwork was arranged either horizontally or radially, but there is not enough surviving evidence from the 1st and 2nd centuries to say what was typical.
Early Eastern Orthodox churches were mainly made of wood with the simplest form of church becoming known as a cell church. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. More loosely, the and the are also derived from this church. In mainland Greece, circular or octagonal drums became the most common. To stick bricks together, they invented a mixture which had never been used before. This is not surprising, as most early Christian buildings were built at the command of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine. Bibliography Buchwald 1999 ; Cruickshank ed.